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Key Stage 2

Key stage 2
Pupils should extend their knowledge and understanding beyond the local area to include the United Kingdom and Europe, North and South America. This will include the location and characteristics of a range of the world’s most significant human and physical features. 

They should develop their use of geographical knowledge, understanding and skills to 
enhance their locational and place knowledge.

Pupils should be taught to:

Locational knowledge
- locate the world’s countries, using maps to focus on Europe (including the location of 
Russia) and North and South America, concentrating on their environmental regions, 
key physical and human characteristics, countries, and major cities
- name and locate counties and cities of the United Kingdom, geographical regions and their identifying human and physical characteristics, key topographical features 
(including hills, mountains, coasts and rivers), and land-use patterns; and understand 
how some of these aspects have changed over time
- identify the position and significance of latitude, longitude, Equator, Northern 
Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and 
Antarctic Circle, the Prime/Greenwich Meridian and time zones (including day and 

Place knowledge
- understand geographical similarities and differences through the study of human and physical geography of a region of the United Kingdom, a region in a European country, and a region within North or South America

Human and physical geography
- describe and understand key aspects of:
- physical geography, including: climate zones, biomes and vegetation belts, rivers, 
mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes, and the water cycle
- human geography, including: types of settlement and land use, economic activity 
including trade links, and the distribution of natural resources including energy, 
food, minerals and water.

Geography – key stages 1 and 2

Geographical skills and fieldwork
- use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer mapping to locate countries and 
describe features studied
- use the eight points of a compass, four and six-figure grid references, symbols and key (including the use of Ordnance Survey maps) to build their knowledge of the United Kingdom and the wider world
- use fieldwork to observe, measure, record and present the human and physical 
features in the local area using a range of methods, including sketch maps, plans and 
graphs, and digital technologies.